Glossary of Terms
ENTERPRISE SEARCH is a system of identifying specific data from throughout an enterprise to be indexed, queried, and displayed to users. The system is designed to integrate seamlessly into the enterprise’s existing structure. It provides security features for configuring administrative roles to ensure that only certain users can query the data.
With enterprise search, data is collected and organized to return the most relevant search results with the fastest response time. Authorized users can receive a ranked result set of structured and unstructured data from content management systems, file systems, local and remote databases, and internal or external websites.
METADATA refers to the definition and description of data. Metadata consists of pre-determined values that describe various attributes of a page. It is typically embedded in the coding of a web page using tags, or in a separate document or database linked to the resource.
Incorporating descriptions of specific attributes within a page makes the information easier to locate and retrieve. By improving access to pages, metadata helps users determine if the information will be useful to them.
CRAWLING is the process in which web spiders, also called robots or bots, browse the Web gathering data from web sites. Crawling can be used to make copies of web pages for search engines to index, collect specific information from pages, or perform maintenance tasks. Spiders begin with a list of URLs to visit, then identify and follow hyperlinks within the site. All data is put into the index and updated on a regular basis.
INDEXING is the process of collecting, analyzing, and storing data for fast and accurate data retrieval.
FACETED NAVIGATION, also known as guided navigation and parametric search, is an active interface for users to search and browse information in a database. In this type of navigation, metadata is used to classify pages into different categories, creating multiple navigational paths to each item. Based on these categories, or parameters, users can perform a simple keyword search and receive various options to refine their query and receive a more specific result set.
This dynamic combination of searching and browsing is now predominant in e-commerce because of the increased number of pages using metadata and the obvious advantages of accessibility.
GOOGLE SEARCH APPLIANCE is a device that provides document indexing functionality in order to make all important information accessible. The GSA facilitates accurate data retrieval by indexing all content in a website, intranet, or document management system. Manufactured and distributed by Google, the GSA is typically marketed towards corporations that want a better search solution. The GSA comes in a variety of models capable of indexing different capacities. All models include a Google search-like interface and factor in over 100 variables per query to provide the best universal search.
GOOGLE MINI provides the same benefits as the Google Search Appliance in a smaller, discounted search solution. The Google Mini is aimed at small and mid-sized businesses, and indexes up to 300,000 documents.
GOOGLE APPS is a service from Google which allows organizations to enjoy the benefits of Google’s web applications straight from the browser using their own custom domain names. Google Apps includes products and collaboration tools such as Gmail, Docs, Sites, Talk, and Google Calendar.
Google Apps is available in Standard, Premier, and Education Editions. The Premier Edition offers more storage space than the free Standard Edition, as well as valuable features such as single sign-on, e-mail migration, and 24 hour support. Google Apps for Education provides the same web applications to campus communities. All editions are secure, ready to integrate, and easy to manage.
MICROSOFT EXCHANGE is a popular Microsoft messaging system and collaborative software product widely used by businesses. Exchange’s features include a mail server, e-mail client, and multiple groupware applications. It is part of the Microsoft Servers line of products and often used in conjunction with Microsoft Outlook. The server supports web-based as well as mobile access to information.
SINGLE SIGN-ON or SSO is a user authentication process in which a user gains access to multiple applications with a single set of credentials. The process permits users to enter a name and password only once during a particular session, without encountering further prompts when switching applications.
Single Sign-On provides more convenient entry to systems, as well as multiple security benefits such as the reduction of internal fraud.
SAML or Security Assertion Markup Language is an XML-based framework for exchanging security data between identity providers and service providers. SAML allows enterprises to make assertions about a subject’s identity in order to define authorization properties. Each assertion carries security information including authentication statements and attribute statements, which contain properties associated with the subject. SAML creates a defined set of request and response messages to obtain assertions, which are sent to the service provider on request. Service providers can use the information to determine access controls. SAML is required for most modern networked environments.
SYNCHRONIZATION refers to the process of maintaining the same up-to-date files in multiple directories. If a file is added, deleted, or modified in one location, the changes will be updated in the other locations. In two-way synchronization, the most current version of files is available in both locations, regardless of where the files were edited.
MIGRATION involves the transfer of data between storage types or computer systems. It is generally implemented when systems are upgraded or merged. An effective migration includes a design for data extraction and loading into the new system, with no data loss and minimal downtime for users.
LDAP or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an internet protocol that queries and modifies directory information from a server. LDAP allows organizations to communicate directory-like data, such as contact info, between programs. Administrators can set permissions to define which users can access the LDAP database. Organizations that use email programs, rather than web-based email, generally use this protocol to create one up-to-date directory for their users.
ACTIVE DIRECTORY or AD is a Microsoft directory used in Windows environments that stores information about an organization’s attributes and provides a number of network functions. An Active Directory consists of a variety of objects which are organized for easy access by administrators and end users. The AD has a hierarchical structure that separates objects into three categories: resources, such as printers and other hardware; services, such as email; and user account information. Administrators are able to control access to these objects and set securities.
CLOUD BROKER See page on Cloud Brokers.